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Nowadays, cannibalism is generally frowned upon; unless you’re in a serious survival situation or have found a nice chianti. However, prehistoric cannibalism seems to have been much more common. Stone age humans, Neanderthals, and earlier hominin species all seem to have gnawed on each other. But what drove our ancestors to this?

Many explanations have been proposed. For instance, we’re dealing with ice age humans here. Perhaps the cold drove them to a deadly food source once all others had vanished. Or they could have been trying to conquer territory, taking out the competition in a grizzly way. Or maybe this behaviour was cultural, being part of some ritual.

Sadly, we’ll probably never know the answer. But we might be able to rule some explanations out. New research claims to do just that, finding evidence that these victims weren’t consumed for their calories. This leaves behind culture and conquest as possible reasons. Which, given the breadth those two topics cover, isn’t really narrowing it down that much.

Prehistoric cannibalism

Prehistoric cannibalism has a long history. Early evidence comes from the Spanish ancestor of NeanderthalsHomo antecessor. 800,000 years ago this species cannibalised juveniles, focusing on skinning and slicing to get as much flesh from them as possible. Even that wasn’t enough, with the cannibals also breaking the bones to get at that sweet marrow inside.

The Neanderthals continued their ancestor’s tradition, perhaps even taking it up a notch. At sites Krapina, Croatia, more than 100 bones show signs of prehistoric cannibalism. This could represent as many as 14 individuals being sliced and diced. And it’s not just this one site either. Locations across France tell a similar story, some containing up to half a dozen more butchered remains.

And whilst we might like to think we’re civilised, ancient humans carried on this practice too. In one particularly brutal example, they really went to town on the skull of a 4 year old. The head was cut off, ears sliced away, and eyeballs snipped out. All to allow the top of the skull to be precisely cut and smoothed into a cup.

A skull cup, made from the skull of a 4-year-old. Cut marks are handily highlighted with arrows

Humans: an overrated food source?

These cases of prehistoric cannibalism stretch over a huge time period. From 800,000-year-old Homo antecessor to a 14,000-year-old skull cup. This is interesting because it makes it hard to correlate cannibalism with the environment. You might think that the harsh climate of the ice age drove ancient species to do the unthinkable. But not all these cases of cannibalism took place in such harsh conditions. In fact, the skull cup was produced well after the ice age had ended.

There are many other factors which suggest that this prehistoric cannibalism isn’t as straightforward as you might think. For example, many of the consumed remains seem to have been treated with a degree of respect. In fact, many were even given a proper burial after they had been eaten. To me, this suggests that something more is going on than “I needed a cup and the closest thing was a 4-year-olds skull”.

Another researcher also seems to agree with me. They reviewed the caloric benefits of this prehistoric cannibalism, to see if we’d actually make a decent food source. Should we start making soylent green?

Calculating cannibalism

So what did this researcher find? Well, the primary conclusion was that yes, humans are made of meat. No surprise there. However, our meat is particularly average. We’re about as nutritious as they typical mammal of our size is. Your diet won’t be improved eating a 70-kilo man versus a 70-kilo deer. Except that would be a really small deer. And that’s the rub. Whilst we’re average for our size, our size is pretty small compared to most prey in the local environment of these prehistoric cannibals.

And that’s the rub. Whilst we’re average for our size, our size is pretty small compared to most prey in the local environment of these prehistoric cannibals.

For instance, there’s a lot of cannibalism in Gough’s cave (where the skull cup is from). Yet eating all of those people would provide as much nutrition as a single deer. And most of these sites contain these alternate prey types. So they could clearly hunt them well and would get more out of them than the average human. If you’re a hungry prehistoric cannibal, you should probably change your diet.

Common prey types of prehistoric cannibals. Humans aren’t that great

Some salt for your human steak

Based on all this, it seems likely that nutrition wasn’t the only factor driving human cannibalism. Assuming, of course, that humans were behaving rationally when it came to their prey. But as a general rule, we do. There are some caveats, but hunter-gatherers generally follow a surprisingly optimal strategy for survival; similar to the results produced by computers when asked to optimise the same thing.

But like I said at the start, it’s going to be hard to pin-point the motivation much more than that. Prehistoric cannibalism happened in a world so far removed from us. We’ll probably never find out exactly why they did it. It just seems likely they didn’t do it because they’re hungry.

Which, in reptrospect, would be the less disturbing option. Eep.


Bello, S.M., Parfitt, S.A. and Stringer, C.B., 2011. Earliest directly-dated human skull-cups. PLoS One, 6(2), p.e17026.

Bello, S.M., Saladié, P., Cáceres, I., Rodríguez-Hidalgo, A. and Parfitt, S.A., 2015. Upper Palaeolithic ritualistic cannibalism at Gough’s Cave (Somerset, UK): The human remains from head to toe. Journal of human evolution, 82, pp.170-189.

Bello, S.M., Wallduck, R., Dimitrijević, V., Živaljević, I. and Stringer, C.B., 2016. Cannibalism versus funerary defleshing and disarticulation after a period of decay: comparisons of bone modifications from four prehistoric sites. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.

Cole, J., 2017. Assessing the calorific significance of episodes of human cannibalism in the Palaeolithic. Scientific Reports, 7.

Raichlen, D.A., Wood, B.M., Gordon, A.D., Mabulla, A.Z., Marlowe, F.W. and Pontzer, H., 2014. Evidence of Lévy walk foraging patterns in human hunter–gatherers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(2), pp.728-733.

Saladié, P., Huguet, R., Rodriguez-Hidalgo, A., Caceres, I., Esteban-Nadal, M., Arsuaga, J.L., de Castro, J.M.B. and Carbonell, E., 2012. Intergroup cannibalism in the European Early Pleistocene: The range expansion and imbalance of power hypotheses. Journal of human evolution, 63(5), pp.682-695.

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Jalfrezi · 6th May 2017 at 3:18 pm

Eat your loved ones to keep them with you.

Eat your enemies to destroy them.

clayton · 6th May 2017 at 9:08 pm

It’s interesting to speculate that perhaps those other forms of Homo didn’t have the aversion to cannibalism that we do, except that it would be total bull-shit, since there are at least few cultures (of our own species) that did or do practice cannibalism, if I’m not mistaken. But it is kind of deliciously creepy, in a way. (I think I made a pun!) But, according to the evidence you mentioned, something ritualistic or spiritual seems the most likely answer. It’s always possible, I suppose, that the extremely rare fossil evidence discovered is evidence of an extremely rare event, like a scene of unspeakable horror. But I think it’s more likely something more mundane, like a ritual or ceremony.

    Adam Benton · 9th May 2017 at 1:07 pm

    Plus one of the main examples from this post, Gough’s Cave, is a modern human site

Maria OConnor · 9th May 2017 at 2:50 am

Probably, was ceremonial. Something like a communion? “I am the bread of life; whoever comes to me will never hunger, and … He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood abides in me, and I in him” (John 6:53–56). This is sacred symbolic language, but maybe in prehistory times cannibalism was something like a communion, literally eating the flesh of the holy ones?

    Adam Benton · 9th May 2017 at 1:17 pm

    Perhaps, although it would be difficult to confirm in most cases. There are some instances where a number of grave goods associated with a fossil hints at them having some sort of special status, such the “the prince” burial from stone age Italy. But I’m not aware of any overlap between these burials and cases of cannibalism.

Ever-Curious · 15th May 2017 at 12:01 pm

I wonder if it was a domination or intimidation thing – a way of showing you’d really beaten your enemy

    Adam Benton · 15th May 2017 at 12:05 pm

    It’s a possibility, although it makes you wonder why they often gave them a proper burial after eating them

Belac · 24th June 2017 at 11:15 pm

Could it be possible that this was just an “easy” way to get rid of meat from your dead after defleshing them (exhibited in the Bodo cranium)? You can’t just leave a body lying around, otherwise you’d have a serious scavenger problem, or something worse. Considering there’s no real “advantage” to eating your own kin, this seems rather likely.

    Adam Benton · 26th June 2017 at 8:16 pm

    However, in many cases they would also bury the dead after the defleshing. If they’re trying to get read of corpses in the most expedient way, why go for this belts and braces approach?

damnimfifty · 17th August 2017 at 10:27 pm

I recently saw a documentary on the global cooling period that happened around the time North America became a destination for Europeans. They made the case that, due to the cold temperatures at the time. The Europeans had switched from making wine to beer and whiskey. Now today in North America we still drink more beer and whiskey although we could easily grow the grapes for wine. That’s several hundred years without switching back. I would speculate the same thing happened with cannibalism. They did it to survive, perhaps dressing it up as sacred sacrifice, the sacrifice worked and the taste for the meat and the easy kill had become part of the fabric when things got easier. Personally I have been meaning to stop eating people but which day do you just stop.

    Adam Benton · 19th August 2017 at 10:57 am

    That’s a very good point. I think this sort of cultural inertia would also be amplified by the state of Neanderthal society. They were living in small, isolated groups for most of their existence. Different groups could be dropping cannibalism at different rates.

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